In a time of greater reliance on distributed energy resources (DER), virtual power plants (VPPs) represent one strategy helping to manage the increasing prevalence of two-way power flows. This technology relies on software and the smart grid, working remotely and automatically to combine a diversity of independent resources into a network via sophisticated planning, scheduling, and bidding of DER-based services. Global VPP implementation spending (excluding energy storage) is expected to reach $2.1 billion annually by 2025. Total VPP implementation spending worldwide is forecast to be $182.6 million in 2016, increasing to $2.1 billion annually by 2025 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 31.3%.
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